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As noted above, the summing over all groups is only meaningful if there is an exchange between groups or reformation of groups. These examples are from the Cambridge English Corpus and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors.

An ensemble of bonds is in dynamic equilibrium, so that dynamic breakage and reformation also occurs during detachment. Political and religious reformation had different ramifications in different places. Such dynamic bond breakage and reformation undoubtedly occurs in biology.

Firstly, the reformation of the retinotopic map in the optic tectum involves growth processes that are differentially affected by spiking activity in the optic nerve. Reformation , in which religion was in some way involved. In others, nevertheless, the imposition of humiliation in the market place was adopted as an important strategy for reformation of character.

For the hopes of professional geological consultants were overtaken by the reformation and revitalization of the gentlemanly amateur tradition. In the sixteenth century the reformation had prospered. Reformation politics powerfully resurrected the view that the religious identity of a people must be considered a function of their ruler's confessional conviction.

For much of the s, s and the early s, ' popular reformation ' was a central concept of interpretation and research. Reformation historians should not neglect this essay, whose admittedly rather intractable text is enhanced by the lavish illustrations and handsome presentation. Both informed the practical identity of the republican experiment as an attempted reformation of manners. Here blasphemy becomes the development and reformation of manners which occurs at the behest of secular authorities and processes of middling sort class formation.

Translations of reformation in French. Need a translator?

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Translator tool. What is the pronunciation of reformation? Browse reforested.

Reformation - Wiktionary

Test your vocabulary with our fun image quizzes. Image credits. Word of the Day unsustainable. Something that is unsustainable cannot continue at the same rate.

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About this. Blog When disaster strikes: ways of describing bad events November 20, Read More. New Words facial fingerprint. November 18, To top. English Examples Translations. Get our free widgets. They found indeed many pious and zealous opponents in the ranks of the regular and secular clergy , but the great need, especially at the beginning, was a universally organized and systematically conducted resistance to this false reformation.

G Finally, one of the chief means employed in promoting the spread of the Reformation was the use of violence by the princes and the municipal authorities. Priests who remained Catholic were expelled and replaced by adherents of the new doctrine , and the people were compelled to attend the new services. The faithful adherents of the Church were variously persecuted , and the civil authorities saw to it that the faith of the descendants of those who had strongly opposed the Reformation was gradually sapped.

In many places the people were severed from the Church by brutal violence ; elsewhere to deceive the people the ruse was employed of retaining the Catholic rite outwardly for a long time, and prescribing for the reformed clergy the ecclesiastical ecclesiastical vestments of the Catholic worship. The history of the Reformation shows incontestably that the civil power was the chief factor in spreading it in all lands, and that in the last analysis it was not religious, but dynastic, political, and social interests which proved decisive.

Add to this that the princes and municipal magistrates who had joined the Reformers tyrannized grossly over the consciences of their subjects and burghers. All must accept the religion prescribed by the civil ruler. The principle "Cuius regio, illius et religio" Religion goes with the land is an outgrowth of the Reformation, and was by it and its adherents, wherever they possessed the necessary power, put into practice. Spread of the Reformation in the various countries Germany and German Switzerland The Reformation was inaugurated in Germany when Luther affixed his celebrated theses to the doors of the church at Wittenberg , 31 October, From the consequences of papal excommunication and the imperial ban Luther was protected by Elector Frederick of Saxony, his territorial sovereign.

While outwardly adopting a neutral attitude, the latter encouraged the formation of Lutheran communities within his domains, after Luther had returned to Wittenberg and resumed there the leadership of the reform movement, in opposition to the Anabaptists. It was Luther who introduced the arbitrary regulations for Divine worship and religious functions; in accordance with these, Lutheran communities were established, whereby an organized heretical body was opposed to the Catholic Church.

Among the other German princes who early associated themselves with Luther and seconded his efforts were: John of Saxony the brother of Frederick ; Grand-Master Albert of Prussia, who converted the lands of his order into a secular duchy, becoming its hereditary lord on accepting Lutheranism ; Dukes Henry and Albert of Mecklenburg; Count Albert of Mansfield; Count Edzard of East Friesland; Landgrave Philip of Hesse, who declared definitively for the Reformation after The Lutheran princes formed the Alliance of Torgau on 4 May, , for their common defence.

By their appearance at the Diet of Speyer in they secured the adoption of the resolution that, with respect to the Edict of Worms against Luther and his erroneous doctrine , each might adopt such attitude as he could answer for before God and emperor.

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Liberty to introduce the Reformation into their territories was thus granted to the territorial rulers. The Catholic estates became discouraged, while the Lutheran princes grew ever more extravagant in their demands. Even the entirely moderate decrees of the Diet of Speyer drew a protest from the Lutheran and Reformed estates. The negotiations at the Diet of Augsburg , at which the estates rejecting the Catholic faith elaborated their creed Augsburg Confession , showed that the restoration of religious unity was not to be effected. The Reformation extended wider and wider, both Lutheranism and Zwinglianism being introduced into other German territories.

In Silesia and the duchy of Liegnitz the Reformation also made great strides. In the Smalkaldic League , an offensive and defensive alliance, was concluded between the Protestant princes and cities. Especially after its renewal this league was joined by other cities and princes who had espoused the Reformation, e. Further negotiations and discussions between the religious parties were instituted with a view to ending the schism , but without success.

Among the methods adopted by the Protestants in spreading the Reformation force was ever more freely employed. The Diocese of Naumburg-Zeitz becoming vacant , Elector John Frederick of Saxony installed by force in the see the Lutheran preacher Nicholas Amsdorf instead of the cathedral provost , Julius von Pflug , chosen by the chapter and himself undertook the secular government. Duke Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel was exiled in , and the Reformation introduced into his domains by force.

In Cologne itself the Reformation was very nearly established by force.

Catholic Counter-Reformation: Crash Course European History #9

Some ecclesiastical princes proved delinquent, taking no measures against the innovations that spread daily in widening circles. Into Pfalz-Neuburg and the towns of Halberstadt, Halle, etc. The collapse of the Smalkaldic League somewhat stemmed the progress of the Reformation: Julius von Pflug was installed in his diocese of Naumburg, Duke Henry of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel recovered his lands, and Hermann von Wied had to resign the Diocese of Cologne , where the Catholic Faith was thus maintained.

The formula of union established by the Diet of Augsburg in Augsburg Interim did not succeed in its object, although introduced into many Protestant territories.

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Meanwhile the treachery of Prince Moritz of Saxony, who made a secret treaty with Henry II of France , Germany's enemy, and formed a confederation with the Protestant princes William of Hesse, John Albert of Mecklenburg, and Albert of Brandenburg , to make war on the emperor and empire, broke the power of the emperor. At the suggestion of Charles, King Ferdinand convened the Diet of Augsburg in , at which, after long negotiations, the compact known as the Religious Peace of Augsburg was concluded.

This pact contained the following provisions in its twenty-two paragraphs: between the Catholic imperial estates and those of the Augsburg Confession the Zwinglians were not considered in the treaty peace and harmony was to be observed; no estate of the empire was to compel another estate or its subjects to change religion, nor was it to make war on such on account of religion; should an ecclesiastical dignitary espouse the Augsburg Confession, he was to lose his ecclesiastical dignity with all offices and emoluments connected with it, without prejudice, however, to his honour and private possession.

Routes of Reformation

By this peace the religious schism in the German Empire was definitively established; henceforth the Catholic and Protestant estates are opposing camps. Almost all Germany , from the Netherlands frontier in the west to the Polish frontier in the east, the territory of the Teutonic Order in Prussia , Central Germany with the exception of the greater part of the western portion, and in South Germany Wurtemburg, Ansbach, Pfalz-Zweibrucken, and other small domains, with numerous free cities, had espoused the Lutheran. Moreover, in the south and southeast, which remained prevailingly Catholic , it found more or less numerous supporters.

Calvinism also spread fairly widely. But the Peace of Augsburg failed to secure the harmony hoped for.

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